Questions tagged [complexity-theory]

For questions regarding complexity analysis of quantum algorithms and comparisons with complexities of classical algorithms.

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Question regarding soundness bound in QMA versus QCMA separation

I am trying to understand the soundness bound reached in Theorem 4 of this paper, which deals with separating $QMA$ and $QCMA$ with respect to an in-place oracle. To state just the part I am confused ...
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0answers
18 views

What is the query complexity of the QUBO algorithm?

What is the complexity of the quantum unconstrained binary optimization (QUBO) algorithm in the number of queries to the quantum processor? To clarify, I'm asking about the complexity on quantum ...
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What is known about the quantum version of Schoening's algorithm for 3SAT?

Schoening's algorithm for 3SAT can be converted to a quantum algorithm.  The classical circuit representing a 3SAT expression in CNF form can be converted to a quantum version involving reversible ...
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Is HHL still BQP-complete when the matrix entries are only in {0,1}?

I'm studying BQP-completeness proofs of a number of interesting problems of Janzing and Wocjan, and Wocjan and Zhang. Janzing and Wocjan show that estimating entries of matrix powers $(A^m)_{ij}$ with ...
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1answer
174 views

Consequences of $MIP^\ast=RE$ Regarding Quantum Algorithms

The (pending-peer review) proof of $MIP^\ast=RE$ in this pre-print has been hailed as a significant breakthrough. The significance of this result is addressed by Henry Yuen (one of the authors) in ...
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1answer
51 views

Does finding an algorithm that solves an NP-Problem in Polynomial time in a Quantum Computer imply P = NP?

I was wondering if the complexity of a quantum circuit that solves a problem that is in NP implies P=NP?
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43 views

Hardwiring the output in black box separation

In this paper, while using a diagonalization argument in Section $5$, the authors write: Fix some enumeration over all $poly(n)$-size quantum verifiers $M_{1}, M_{2},...$ which we can do because the ...
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2answers
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How do I check if a gate represented by Unitary $U$ is a Clifford Gate?

The Gottesman–Knill theorem states that stabilizer circuits, circuits that only consist of gates from Clifford group, can be perfectly simulated in polynomial time on a probabilistic classical ...
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1answer
67 views

Can quantum computers be used to solve P = NP

The P versus NP problem is a major unsolved problem in computer science. It asks whether every problem whose solution can be quickly verified can also be solved quickly. It is one of the seven ...
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32 views

Equivalence checking of quantum circuits up to error

Suppose you are given two circuit descriptions $A$ and $B$ where by a circuit description I mean a sequence of gates (in the order they are applied) and the qubits they are applied on. (For the sake ...
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38 views

Rings or algebras with many nilpotent elements and efficient computation

Searching the web for '"quantum computer" nilpotent' returns many results, so maybe the question is ontopic for this site. Can a quantum computer solve the following mathematical problem: ...
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2answers
67 views

State of the art of SAT on a quantum computer

Disclaimer: I don't understand quantum computing. Given a CNF boolean formula $\phi$ in $n$ variables and quantum computer with $q$ qubits, what is the complexity of solving $\phi$ as a function of $...
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Is either the adiabatic or the diabatic version of quantum annealing known to be theoretically more powerful than the other?

Quantum annealing can be considered either in the perfectly adiabatic "slow" limit (in which case it's usually referred as "adiabatic quantum computing" (AQC) instead of "...
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1answer
31 views

Efficient diagonalisation of low-rank observables

Let $n$ be the number of qubits we're using, and let $$\mathrm H=\sum_{i=1}^T\alpha_i\mathrm U_i|0\rangle\langle0|\mathrm U_i^\dagger$$ be an $n$-qubit hermitian observable where $T=O(\mathrm{poly}(n))...
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What are the thermodynamic limits of Shor's algorithm

The asymptotic time complexity of Grover's algorithm is the square root of the time of a brute force algorithm. However, according to Perlner and Liu, the thermodynamic behavior (theoretical minimum ...
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1answer
42 views

Could finding Golomb rulers be in $\mathrm{BQP}$?

The problem of factoring large numbers may be in the so-called "intermediate" regime. These are problems that are in $\mathrm{NP}$, but are neither likely to be easy enough to be in $\mathrm{P}$ nor ...
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39 views

Question about the Grover-Sysoev algorithm [duplicate]

We consider  a quantum circuit that takes as input two vectors $\vert x \rangle$  and $\vert y \rangle$. The output of this quantum circuit must contain the reflected vector of   $\vert y \rangle$  ...
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1answer
24 views

Do we already know some problems, that would be hard to solve for quantum computers, and use them in cryptography? [duplicate]

I was wondering, whether there are any problems that we already know are difficult to solve for a quantum computer, and that we could potentially use in cryptography, just as we do now with e.g. the ...
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23 views

How to find a marked item out of $K < N$ marked items when K is unknown?

I'm wondering about time complexities of variants of the searching problem in Grover's Algorithm. I know that using G.A. the time complexity required to find a market item reduces to $O(\sqrt N)$. ...
3
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1answer
41 views

Speed up in Bernstein-Vazirani algorithm and Gottesman-Knill theorem

The Bernstein-Vazirani problem: Let $f$ be a function from bit strings of length $n$ to a single bit, $$f: \{ 0, 1\}^n \to \{0, 1\} $$ thus all input bit strings $x \in \{0,1\}^n$. There exists a ...
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1answer
24 views

On the complexity of an oracle for a classical function

Let us assume that we have a classical function $f:\{0\,;\,1\}^n\to\{0\,;\,1\}^m$ which is efficiently computable. Then, its oracle is defined with $\mathbf{U}_f\,|x\rangle\,|y\rangle=|x\rangle\,|y\...
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2answers
113 views

How to check if a quantum circuit is deterministic?

I'm trying to find a way to check if a given quantum circuit is essentially a classical one (up to changes in phase). Given a description of a quantum circuit by a list (of size $l$) of ordered ...
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1answer
38 views

Two commuting Hamiltonians

Let's say I have 2 commuting Hamiltonians that are not degenerate, I know it means that they a have a common energy basis, yet does it mean that they also have the same ground state? Or is there any ...
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2answers
52 views

How to implement exponentiation of a gate without breaking complexity?

In the application of QFT for quantum phase estimation (QPE) of a unitary $\mathbf{U}$, one has to perform successive controlled operations using powers of $\mathbf{U}$. In order not to break the ...
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53 views

Not sure what do Nielsen and Chuang mean by number of operations

I am reading Nielsen and Chuang's "Quantum Computation and Quantum Information". One important concept about algorithms is how the number of operations scales with the length of the input. I realized ...
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1answer
223 views

Simpler implementation of the Toffoli gate on IBM Q for special circumstances

On current quantum hardware, a depth of circuit is constrained because of noise. In some cases, results are totally decoherent and as a result meaningless. This is especially true when Toffoli gates ...
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1answer
133 views

Is Connes' Embedding Problem akin the word problem for finitely presented groups?

The complexity class $\mathrm{MIP^*}$ includes the set of languages that can be efficiently verified by a classical, polynomially-bounded verifier, engaging with two quantum provers that can share (...
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1answer
498 views

Why are non-Clifford gates more complex than Clifford gates?

There are two groups of quantum gates - Clifford gates and non-Clifford gates. Representatives of Clifford gates are Pauli matrices $I$, $X$, $Y$ and $Z$, Hadamard gate $H$, $S$ gate and $CNOT$ gate. ...
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1answer
34 views

Probabilistic query complexity lower bound for Bernstein-Vazirani problem

In the Bernstein Vazirani algorithm, the problem is to find $s$ for $f(x) = s \times x $ , $f : \{0,1 \}^n \to \{0 , 1 \} $. The literature says that the classical randomized algorithms also requires $...
5
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1answer
110 views

How powerful would quantum computers be if we had direct access to the full state vector?

The state vector is exponential in size, so we can manipulate an exponential quantity of information with a linear quantity of gates. However, this doesn't give us general exponential speedup because ...
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1answer
176 views

On the probability of preparing of a uniform superposition by performing a controlled-multiplication and post-selecting $0$

I take as a starting point Watrous's celebrated paper defining the Quantum Merlin-Arthur (QMA) class. He provides a protocol for Arthur to test whether an element $h$ is not in a group $\mathcal{H}$ ...
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1answer
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How does number of shots (number of times the computation is repeated) affects time complexity [closed]

I want to know what happens to the time complexity in terms of big O analysis
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1answer
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Self reducibility of QCMA problems

Self reducibility is when search version of the problems in a language reduce to decision versions of the same problems. NP-complete problems are self reducible. Are QCMA complete problems self ...
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1k views

Resources to study quantum algorithms and quantum complexity

I have a computer science background, and I'm interested in studying 'quantum algorithms' and anything that is related like 'quantum complexity'. I would like to have all important resources that is ...
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75 views

Quantum algorithms, combinatorial optimization, and approximation bounds

Recently, I saw this article, Classical and Quantum Bounded Depth Approximation Algorithms where the author discusses the limitations of QAOA relative to classical approaches. In particular, they ...
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57 views

Marriott-Watrous style amplification with a quantum input

$\def\braket#1#2{\langle#1|#2\rangle}\def\bra#1{\langle#1|}\def\ket#1{|#1\rangle}$ In MW05 the authors demonstrate so-called "in-place" amplitude amplification for QMA, exhibiting a method for Arthur ...
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2answers
151 views

How exactly is solving the random circuit sampling problem a computation in the Church-Turing thesis sense?

Note: This has been cross-posted to CS Theory SE. If we assume $\mathsf{BQP} \neq \mathsf{BPP}$, then we can say with reasonable certainty that Google's random sampling experiment falsifies the ...
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57 views

Better “In-Place” Amplification of QMA

$\def\braket#1#2{\langle#1|#2\rangle}\def\bra#1{\langle#1|}\def\ket#1{|#1\rangle}$ In MW05 the authors demonstrate so-called "in-place" amplitude amplification for QMA, exhibiting a method for Arthur ...
19
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2answers
4k views

What does Google's claim of “Quantum Supremacy” mean for the question of BQP vs BPP vs NP?

Google recently announced that they have achieved "Quantum Supremacy": "that would be practically impossible for a classical machine." Does this mean that they have definitely proved that BQP ≠ BPP ?...
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3answers
177 views

Is quantum complexity basis-invariant?

Quantum computing refers (occasionally implicitly) to a "computational basis". Some texts posit that such a basis may arise from a physically "natural" choice. Both mathematics and physics require ...
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91 views

What is the cost of implementing the Quantum Fourier transform in a classical computer?

What is the cost of implementing the Quantum Fourier transform (QFT) in a classical computer? We know we require at least $\log{n}$ depth quantum circuits to do a QFT in a quantum computer, with $n$ ...
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Strong vs weak simulations and the polynomial hierarchy collapse

(Edited to make the argument and the question more precise) An argument for quantum computational "supremacy" (specifically in Bremner et al. and the Google paper) assumes that there exists a ...
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146 views

Simulating depth-2 circuits

Quantum depth-2 circuits can be efficiently simulated classically, as shown in Proposition 2 of this paper. The following is a quote of the proof. After the first time step the quantum state of the ...
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2answers
261 views

Are there many practical problems for which Grover's algorithm beats the best heuristic classical algorithm?

It's well known that, given an oracle for a function $f$ from a very large set $S$ (of order $N \gg 1$) to $\{0, 1\}$, Grover's algorithm can find an element of $S$ that maps to 1 with $\sim \sqrt{N}$ ...
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Estimating errors in Hamiltonian Simulation paper

I am looking at the paper: Simulating Hamiltonian dynamics with a truncated Taylor series and I am explicitly interested in Eq (15) and (16). These read $$ ||PA |0\rangle |\psi \rangle - |0\rangle ...
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complexity of classical counting algorithm

Does anyone know the solution of Exercise 6.14 of Nielsen and Cheung: Prove that any classical counting algorithm with a probability at least 3/4 for estimating $M$ correctly to within an ...
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1answer
33 views

Minimum Multi-Degree Polynomials representing Boolean Functions

In the 10th Anniversary Edition of Nielsen and Chuang Quantum Computation and Quantum Information textbook, Chapter 6.7 talks about Black Box algorithm limits. It is given: $f:\{0,1\}^n \...
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1answer
214 views

Quantum State Sanitizing

I was reading these lecture notes from Prof. Aaronson about Waltrous's MA protocol for the group non-membership problem. At the end of the description, there's an approach to distinguish if Merlin ...
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1answer
235 views

Separating NP from BQP relative to an oracle

I was looking at this lecture note where the author gives an oracle separation between $\mathsf{BQP}$ and $\mathsf{NP}$. He hints at how "standard diagonalisation techniques can be used to make this ...
4
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1answer
169 views

Showing that Matrix Inversion is BQP-complete - HHL Algorithm

I am trying to understand an argument that Matrix Inversion is BQP-complete for certain conditions on the matrix. This is explained here on page 39 (this paper is a primer to the HHL algorithm and ...