966 views

### Show that, averaging over uniformly random unitaries, $\mathbb{E}[UXU^\dagger]=\operatorname{Tr}(X)\frac{I}{d}$

As mentioned e.g. in this answer, if we compute the average $$\Phi(X)\equiv \mathbb{E}_U[UXU^\dagger] \equiv \int_{\mathbf U(d)} d\mu(U) UXU^\dagger,$$ where $d\mu(U)$ is the Haar measure over the ...
• 26.3k
235 views

### Are continuous probability distributions over quantum channels possible?

I am not an expert in the subject and apologize in advance for a strange question and (possible) abuse of the terminology. I have learned that any convex combination of quantum channels (CPTP maps, ...
• 141
371 views

• 7,302
352 views

### Prove that uniformly random states have moments ${\bf E}_\psi|\langle x|\psi\rangle|^{2t}\sim1/\binom d t$

Im looking for the moments of Haar random states. Is it true that $\textbf{E}_{\psi\sim \text{Haar}}|\langle x| \psi\rangle|^{2t}\sim \frac{1}{\binom{d}{t}}?$ How does one prove this?
1 vote
440 views

### Does applying a random Pauli matrix to a density matrix result in the identity?

Nielsen and Chuang's textbook, Equation 8.101 (section 8.3.4 'Depolarizing Channel') shows that applying a random Pauli to a density matrix representing one qubit equals the identity (times one half): ...
• 1,411
223 views

### Why does Schur's lemma imply that $\int \sigma^{\otimes n}_{HK} d(\sigma)$ must be a multiple of the identity on the symmetric subspace?

I am trying to understand Lemma 2 in this paper. Consider a state $\tau_{H^n}=\int \sigma^{\otimes n}_{H} \mu(\sigma)$ where $\mu(\sigma)$ is the measure on the space of density operators on a single ...
• 3,137
143 views

### Is the "unitary twirling operation" physically realizable?

In this neat answer by Markus Heinrich, it is shown that twirling an arbitrary quantum channel $\Lambda$ over the unitary group $U(d)$ yields a depolarizing channel $\tilde{\Lambda}$ given by  \...
• 1,055
1 vote
143 views

### What is the definition of twirled superoperator?

I am trying find the definition of twirled (super)operator. One such is Definition 2.3.16 on p. 33 of Christoph Dankert, Efficient Simulation of Random Quantum States and Operators. However, the ...
• 231
1 vote
### Prove that the twirling operation on a channel gives a decomposition $\int dU\, U^\dagger\mathcal E(U\rho U^\dagger)U=\alpha P+\beta Q$
The twirled operation of a quantum channel $\mathcal E$ is defined as \begin{align} \mathcal E_T(\rho) &= \int dU U^\dagger \mathcal E(U \rho U^\dagger)U, \end{align} where the integral is over ...