# Quantum PCA State Preparation

In Quantum Algorithm Implementations for Beginners is an example of the Quantum PCA with an given 2 x 2 covariance matrix $$\sum$$.
The steps for state preparation are given in the paper. The steps are:

• calculate covariance matrix $$\sum$$ from the data

• compute density matrix $$\rho = \frac{1}{Tr(\sum)}*\sum$$

• calculate two-qubit pure quantum state $$| \psi \rangle$$
• calculate the unitary operator $$U_{prep}$$

I wanna comprehend the example from the paper. So far I got the density matrix $$\rho$$. I would be glad if someone could explain me how to calculate the quantum state $$| \psi \rangle$$ and futhermore $$U_{prep}$$.

• if you are referring to the description given in pag.46, it says "In the first step, one’s classical computer converts the raw data vectors into a covariance matrix Σ, then normalizes this matrix to form ρ = Σ/Tr(Σ), then purifies it to make a pure state |ψi$\rangle$, and finally computes the unitary Uprep needed to prepare |ψi from a pair of qubits each initially in the |0i state.". So are you asking what does it mean to purity a state? – glS Jan 31 at 10:00
• yeah exactly, I thought it would be something like amplitude-encoding so that $\rho_{11} = \alpha_{11}$ for Quantum state $| 00 \rangle$ and so on. But I think this is wrong. So I need a bit help here. – rexrayne Jan 31 at 15:46
• you can try to have a look at the Wikipedia page to know what purification means. In a few words, it means to find a pure state whose reduced density matrix equals your $\rho$. – glS Jan 31 at 16:35

In an article Towards Pricing Financial Derivatives with an IBM Quantum Computer PCA is implemented in a practical way with an example.

Operator $$U_{prep}$$ is realized with $$\mathrm{U3}$$ gates but parameters for some gates presented in the article seems wrong (maybe typo). See this thread for more information, correct $$\mathrm{U3}$$ parameters values and a way how to implement PCA on IBM Q.

EDIT: How to find parameters $$\theta$$, $$\phi$$ and $$\lambda$$ for implementation of $$U_{prep}$$ with $$\mathrm{U3}$$ gate.

$$\mathrm{U3}$$ gate has this form:

$$\mathrm{U3}= \begin{pmatrix} \cos(\theta/2) & -\mathrm{e}^{i\lambda}\sin(\theta/2) \\ \mathrm{e}^{i\phi}\sin(\theta/2) & \mathrm{e}^{i(\phi+\lambda)}\cos(\theta/2) \end{pmatrix}.$$

Firstly, you have to factor out some complex number (denote $$c$$) from $$U_{prep}$$ in order to have a real number on position $$u_{11}$$. After that you can easily calculate $$\theta$$ from $$\cos(\theta/2)$$. Then, it is not problem to find $$\phi$$ from $$\mathrm{e}^{i\phi}\sin(\theta/2)$$ and finnaly $$\lambda$$ from $$\mathrm{e}^{i(\phi+\lambda)}\cos(\theta/2)$$.

The number $$c$$ factored out in the first step is a global phase. It is not important in case $$\mathrm{U3}$$ is used in its single qubit form. But if the gate is used as controlled one, the global phase cannot be neglected. So, you will have controlled $$\mathrm{U3}$$ and controlled global phase gate.

• Thank you for this paper. I tried to comprehend this as well, but I have a problem with equation 16. I used the formula: $\mathrm{e}^{2\pi i \rho}$ but I calculated the values: $[-0.6340 - 0.7733i -0.4751 + 0.8799i; -0.4751 + 0.8799i -0.6340 + 0.7733i]$ with matlab. Did I miss something? I didn´t found something about this in the thread you linked. – rexrayne Jan 31 at 18:08
• First of all, did you use function exp or expm? Because expm returns matrix exponential. Exp is standard exponential function applied on each elements separately. Moreover, I also calculated matrix exponential in MatLab and it differed from the one in paper by global phase (i.e. all matrix elements were multiplied by same number) which can be ignored. – Martin Vesely Jan 31 at 19:34
• Thank you, you are right, I didn´t use expm, then the values are correct. Just one last question how do I calculate from the $U_{prep}$ the parameters $\lambda, \phi , \theta$? – rexrayne Feb 1 at 20:10
• @rexrayne: Please see edited answer above. – Martin Vesely Feb 3 at 10:37