# What is a “barrier” in Qiskit circuits?

I just started studying IBM Qiskit, and cannot find details about the barrier method on the QuantumCircuit class. It is shown in the circuit drawing, but I never heard about it after reading quantum computing text books. Is it a unitary gate? If so, how is it defined? Thanks.

You won't find the barrier in quantum computing textbooks because it isn't a standard primitive of quantum information theory like unitary gates and quantum circuits.

The barrier as a directive for circuit compilation to separate pieces of a circuit so that any optimizations or re-writes are constrained to only act between barriers (and if there a no barriers they act on the whole circuit). This only comes into play when using the transpile or execute functions in Qiskit (execute includes a transpile step).

Below is an example, and you can find more examples in these Qiskit tutorial notebooks:

Example

If a circuit has several 1-qubit gates in a row acting on the same qubit these can be combined into a single 1-qubit gate. If you wanted to explicitly prevent this sort of behaviour you can place a barrier between them.

Create a 1-qubit circuit with several gates

from qiskit import QuantumCircuit, QuantumRegister, transpile

qr = QuantumRegister(1)
circuit1 = QuantumCircuit(qr)
circuit1.u1(0.2, qr)
circuit1.u2(0.1,0.2, qr)
circuit1.u3(0.1, 0.2, 0.3, qr)
circuit1.draw()


This circuit is

         ┌─────────┐┌─────────────┐┌─────────────────┐
q0_0: |0>┤ U1(0.2) ├┤ U2(0.1,0.2) ├┤ U3(0.1,0.2,0.3) ├
└─────────┘└─────────────┘└─────────────────┘


If we transpile it these gates are combined using the default settings

circuit1t = transpile(circuit1)
circuit1t.draw()


The returned circuit is

         ┌───────────────────────────┐
q0_0: |0>┤ U3(1.6629,0.6018,0.43905) ├
└───────────────────────────┘


Now if we wanted to stop the gates being combined we could add barriers:

qr = QuantumRegister(1)
circuit2 = QuantumCircuit(qr)
circuit2.u1(0.2, qr)
circuit2.barrier(qr)
circuit2.u2(0.1,0.2, qr)
circuit2.barrier(qr)
circuit2.u3(0.1, 0.2, 0.3, qr)
circuit2.draw()

┌─────────┐ ░ ┌─────────────┐ ░ ┌─────────────────┐
q1_0: |0>┤ U1(0.2) ├─░─┤ U2(0.1,0.2) ├─░─┤ U3(0.1,0.2,0.3) ├
└─────────┘ ░ └─────────────┘ ░ └─────────────────┘


In this case transpiling wont change the circuit:

circuit2t = transpile(circuit2)
circuit2t.draw()
┌─────────┐ ░ ┌─────────────┐ ░ ┌─────────────────┐
q1_0: |0>┤ U1(0.2) ├─░─┤ U2(0.1,0.2) ├─░─┤ U3(0.1,0.2,0.3) ├
└─────────┘ ░ └─────────────┘ ░ └─────────────────┘