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Consider physical systems such as electrons in metals, or Bose-Einstein condensates, or any crystal, which are realised in the real three-dimensional space.

If we want to simulate these systems on a quantum simulator, then we have to arrange our qubits in 3d.

Is it possible to do that on IBMQ Experience?

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  • $\begingroup$ just a remark: you don't really need to have "qubits arranged in three dimensions" to simulate three-dimensional systems. Just think of classical computers, which are used to simulate three-dimensional phenomena all the time, without requiring the cpu architecture itself to connect the single transistors in three dimensions (yes, there are such architectures classically, but you simulate 3d stuff without them just fine). At the end of the day, the standard one-tape (1D) Turing machine is already Turing complete. 3D architectures might have advantages efficiency-wise though. $\endgroup$ – glS Sep 7 at 14:02
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To simulate a 3D material, the material's structure will need to be somewhat understood. That way the structure can be mapped to the qubit connectivity. Notice in this tutorial the qubits and their connections to each other are represented in graphs. The 3D material to be simulated can be put into a graph that will then be mapped to the qubit graph and the connections weighted according the physical interaction in the 3d material. This will probably be a very large circuit, but that doesn't mean it's not worth looking into!

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