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I have a tensor product of a 5 qubit state |h>. From this I want to calculate the probability of the 2nd qubit being in state |1>. Can someone show me how I can do this? I know I can use the Born rule but I am not sure how. For context I am using Python and NumPy.

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    $\begingroup$ How is the state presented to you? 2^5 amplitudes in the computational basis? As a circuit applied to a starting state? $\endgroup$ – AHusain Jul 10 at 21:58
  • $\begingroup$ @AHusain Presented as a 32 entry long vector tensor product of the 5 qubit states $\endgroup$ – meelszz Jul 10 at 22:26
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So probability of the second qubit being in state $|1\rangle$ is the probability of the 5 qubit system being in a state that has $|1\rangle$ as the second qubit.

So among all the 32 states, find the ones that have $|1\rangle$ in the second qubit, which will be half of them, for example $|01100\rangle$ and $|11111\rangle$. Add up the corresponding probabilities, which is the absolute square of the amplitudes presented to you in vector form.

Here's an example for a 3 qubit state:

$$\begin{matrix} 000 \\ 001 \\ 010 \\ 011 \\100 \\ 101 \\ 110 \\ 111 \\ \end{matrix} \begin{bmatrix} 0 \\0.577 \\ 0 \\ 0.577\\ 0\\ 0\\ 0\\ 0.577\\ \end{bmatrix}$$

In the above case, the probability that the second qubit is $|1\rangle$ is probability that it will be in $|010\rangle, |011\rangle, |110\rangle$ or $|111\rangle$, which is $|0.577|^2 + |0.577|^2$ which is 0.666.

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