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I know how polarization filters work using EM waves. Can somebody help me in understanding how they work using photons?

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    $\begingroup$ there doesn't seem to be a significant connection between the first and second question. Would you mind editing this one to remove the second question, and ask it in a separate thread? $\endgroup$ – glS Feb 23 at 17:54
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    $\begingroup$ the title of this question is confusing as well. "spin" and "polarization" are the same thing for a photon, or in other words, what we call "polarization" is just another way to refer to the spin of the photon. Also, the title is a third question unrelated to the two asked in the body. Please pick one and focus the question on that one $\endgroup$ – glS Feb 23 at 17:57
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A photon can be thought of as a tiny piece of a circularly polarized wave.

In this sense, all polarization states of EM waves are a superposition of photons, each with a circular (left or right) polarization. Linearly polarized light could then be constructed as a pair of photons with left and right polarization (or spin). Maybe your question is whether the Jones matrix for a linear polarizer can be represented as a spin operator?

I hope this is what you where asking.

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    $\begingroup$ I want to know how polarization filters work. How is that they absorb photons with one spin and not absorb photons with reverse spin? I want to understand that mechanism. $\endgroup$ – user2508039 Feb 27 at 6:47
  • $\begingroup$ Linear polarizers do not absorb only one spin state. If this was the case, the exiting light would be circularly polarized (linear polarization is one photon with left and another with right polarization and only one would remain). I edited my answer. $\endgroup$ – Pando MM Feb 28 at 1:16

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