Inspired by the question Are there emulators for quantum computers?, I'm curious to know if it's possible to emulate a quantum network on a classic computer. Additionally, is it possible to emulate a quantum network over a classic network?

Current resources:


I joined the Quantum internet Hackaton with Simulaqron We did simulations for the quantum leader election algorithms

Simulaqron is more an abstract simulator on a classical computer or classical network. Most important aspect is entanglement between 2 nodes. This can be done with only command called EPR and creates an entangled pair of qubits on different nodes, nice and easy setup for your quantum network. Keep in mind though that it is not an real entangled pair but only a classical local copy.

  • $\begingroup$ After looking at Simulaqron & Squanch a bit more, I am leaning towards Squanch. QuTech Academy looks interesting! Curious to hear more about your experience in the hackathon (any links to code?). $\endgroup$ – user820789 Dec 16 '18 at 21:20
  • $\begingroup$ The quantum leader election algorithms look interesting. Do you know if that in any way correlates to the group leaders optimization algorithm? $\endgroup$ – user820789 Dec 17 '18 at 3:19

Is it possible to emulate a quantum network over a classic network?

Yes. The following projects are currently available:


SimulaQron is a distributed simulation of the end nodes in a future quantum internet with the specific goal to explore application development. The end nodes in a quantum internet are few qubit processors, which may exchange qubits using a quantum internet. Specifically, SimulaQron allows the installation of a local simulation program on each computer in the network that provides the illusion of having a local quantum processor to potential applications. The local simulation programs on each classical computer connect to each other classically, forming a simulated quantum internet allowing the exchange of simulated qubits between the different network nodes, as well as the creation of simulated entanglement.


The Simulator for Quantum Networks and Channels (SQUANCH) is an open-source Python library for creating parallelized simulations of distributed quantum information processing. The framework includes many features of a general-purpose quantum computing simulator, but it is optimized specifically for simulating quantum networks. It includes functionality to allow users to easily design complex multi-party quantum networks, extensible classes for modeling noisy quantum channels, and a multiprocessed NumPy backend for performant simulations.


Currently under development at QuTech, NetSquid is the world’s first network simulator that is capable of simulating the decay of quantum information over time together with noisy operations and stochastic feedback loops. Its primary use is the prediction of the performance of quantum network protocols in a physically-realistic setting.


List of quantum network simulators, taken from Rodney van Meter's post to the Quantum Internet Research Group (QIRG) Internet Research Task Force (IRTF) mailing list on 31 March 2020:

QuISP, Keio/WIDE https://github.com/sfc-aqua/quisp

SimulaQron, QuTech http://www.simulaqron.org/

NetSquid, QuTech https://netsquid.org/

SeQueNCe, Suchara, Argonne https://cpb-us-w2.wpmucdn.com/voices.uchicago.edu/dist/0/2327/files/2019/11/SeQUeNCe.pdf

SQUANCH, Bartlett https://pypi.org/project/SQUANCH/ https://arxiv.org/abs/1808.07047

QuNetSim, DiAdamo https://arxiv.org/abs/2003.06397

QKD simulator in ns-3, including routing, Mehic et al https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8935373 https://www.qkdnetsim.info/ https://twitter.com/mickeyze2

Physical-layer, online calculator for SPDC http://spdcalc.org/

  • $\begingroup$ I think SimulaQron was mostly developed by Dahlberg, and NetSquid is a much more joint effort by multiple people. Moreover, both are developed at QuTech rather than the TU Delft I would say. $\endgroup$ – JSdJ Nov 13 '20 at 10:02
  • $\begingroup$ @JSdJ I just copied and pasted the list from Rodney's email. But, yes, you're right; I will update the response. $\endgroup$ – Bruno Rijsman Nov 14 '20 at 13:51

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