The CHSH inequality was presented in the paper Proposed Experiment to Test Local Hidden-Variable Theories published in 1969 by J.F. Clauser, M.A. Horne, A. Shimony, and R.A. Holt. I'm interested in which paper first presented their proposed experimental apparatus in nonlocal game format, presumably also introducing & defining the concept of nonlocal games in general.


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As far as I have been researching from the intrenet about the CHSH game, the first experimental realization seems to be the one published by Aspect in Experimental Realization of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm Gedankenexperiment: A New Violation of Bell's Inequalities. The experiment is based on photon polarization and is the proof of the universe's nonlocality at subatomical particle level.

About the general description of the non-local games I have tracked the paper Consequences and Limits of Nonlocal Strategies by Cleve et al. as the first formal description of those, and the CHSH game. I am not completely sure that this might be the first paper defining such concepts, but I think that is really one of them and it is a really good article concerning such topics.

  • $\begingroup$ I was thinking the Consequences paper was a good candidate, although still need to read the earlier paper on quantum pseudo-telepathy. $\endgroup$
    – ahelwer
    Commented Oct 31, 2018 at 18:10
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    $\begingroup$ It's not a published paper, but Boris Tsirelson has lecture notes from 1997 (webcitation.org/5fl2WZOMI) that describe CHSH as a game. (See lecture 5.) $\endgroup$ Commented Oct 31, 2018 at 18:41
  • $\begingroup$ Good find! So now I'm wondering whether the concept of nonlocal games was actually introduced in a paper, or stating the CHSH experiment in terms of a game was considered obvious to scientists in the field and never written up in a standalone paper. $\endgroup$
    – ahelwer
    Commented Oct 31, 2018 at 20:12
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    $\begingroup$ I don't know if I would use the term "obvious," because things that seem obvious in retrospect were not always obvious at the time. However, I believe it is very natural from the viewpoint of theoretical computer science to describe the CHSH experiment as a game. It is very common in theoretical computer science to describe interactions as games in general, and more specifically nonlocal games (although not under that name) were studied in a purely classical context and described as games since the early 1990s, primarily in connection with the multi-prover interactive proof system model. $\endgroup$ Commented Nov 1, 2018 at 11:41

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