I have some trouble building an exponential matrix using the latest version of Qiskit that supports Parameters. I am also interested in learning how to use custom loss functions (if this is even possible).

So I am coming from the following direction: I want to build a VQC using this layout

enter image description here

I only want to implement this circuit using these M_Class gates, M_img class I dont need. M_class are of form : $\mathrm{e}^{A(\theta)}$

In particular it is defined by the sum of small 4x4 matrices: $$A = \exp\left(-\frac{\mathrm{i}}{2}\sum_{\rho,\gamma\in[0, 1, 2, 3]}\theta_{\rho,\gamma}\hat{\sigma}^\rho\otimes\hat{\sigma}^\gamma\right)$$

with the matrices being $\hat{\sigma}^0=\mathbf{I}$, $\hat{\sigma}^0=\hat{\sigma}^x$, $\hat{\sigma}^2=\hat{\sigma}^y$ and $\hat{\sigma}^3=\hat{\sigma}^z$.

So my idea was to use a this feature map

qc = QuantumCircuit(num_qbits)
featuremap = qc

then build the Unitary Matrix that encodes M_class in order to build the ansatz that resembles the first graphic. My problem is finding a way to build a parametrized exp matrix. The only way building such a matrix I know use

evol_gate = PauliEvolutionGate(A, time=5, synthesis=SuzukiTrotter(reps=2))

but as far as I understand this aproach does not support Paramter, which can be trained later... My general idea was to program Hermit operator M_class and to built a circuit out of it as ansatz and in the end using something like this

vqc = VQC(

# clear objective value history
objective_func_vals = []
vqc.fit(train_features, train_labels)

Hope someone can help :))


1 Answer 1


I think EvolvedOperatorAnsatz is a good option. It accepts a list of operators and an evolution synthesis and constructs a parametrized quantum circuit:

from qiskit.circuit.library.n_local import EvolvedOperatorAnsatz
from qiskit.quantum_info import SparsePauliOp
from qiskit.synthesis import SuzukiTrotter

ops = [
    SparsePauliOp('XYIII', 0.5),
    SparsePauliOp('IYZII', 0.5),
    SparsePauliOp('IIZXI', 0.5),

ansatz = EvolvedOperatorAnsatz(ops,
  • $\begingroup$ Big thanks for your quick reply it really helped me alot getting a bit deeper understanding! I played around with it and it helped me for sure! Some different questions came up, I posted them in a new question as I am not sure if it is allowed or appreciated to continue here. ongoing question $\endgroup$
    – aha san
    Commented May 3 at 13:50
  • $\begingroup$ While working on this, I asked myself the following: Since the EvolvedOperatorAnsatz is used for approximation in the time evolution of a matrix, I wonder if it truly represents the matrix exponential as described above. I suppose it does if we are only approximating one step, but I am not sure if this is considered in the idea you posted above. I appreciate any replies and thank you again. $\endgroup$
    – aha san
    Commented May 23 at 9:02
  • 1
    $\begingroup$ Qiskit supports MatrixExponential for exact operator evolution. you can use it for evolution parameter. But I'm not sure of its applicability in your case. $\endgroup$ Commented May 23 at 10:16
  • $\begingroup$ Thanks alot I will look into this! $\endgroup$
    – aha san
    Commented May 29 at 9:26

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