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In the research of quantum error correction, noise is often classified into code capacity noise, phenomenological noise, and circuit-level noise. Among these, circuit-level noise is considered the most realistic noise. However, I believe that there are actually noise sources that are not taken into account even with circuit-level noise. What are some examples of noise that are not considered even with circuit-level noise?

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  • Often (but not always) leakage errors are not accounted for. A leakage errors occurs if a qubit is excited to a level outside the qubit subspace.

  • Correlated errors between qubits which are not interacting via gates. For example due to cosmic rays.

  • Cross talk errors due to higher connectivity. Circuit level error models usually assume that the probability of errors is independent of qubit connectivity.

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