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I'm working with pennylane. My goal is to plot CFI(Classical Fisher Information)with following quantum state. enter image description here

With the above equation I set gamma as 0. Then It becomes: enter image description here

If gamma is not equal to zero, it needs to be normalized like: sqrt(coeff_0_state^2 + coeff_1_state^2)

So, I expect to get following plot. enter image description here

The red line is the correct result when gamma = 0

But I got following enter image description here

With the following code:

import pennylane as qml
import scipy as sp
from pennylane import numpy as np
from pennylane import math as m
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt


# Variable for plot
N = 1000
tau_CFI = np.linspace(-0.001, 3.0, N)


# == Generate coeff ==
def With_norm(theta, gamma):
    coeff = np.array([ ((1+np.exp(-1.j * theta))/2) * (np.sqrt(1-gamma)) , (1-np.exp(-1.j * theta))/2 ]) / (1-gamma * (np.cos(theta)**2) ) 
    
    norm = np.linalg.norm(coeff)
    # norm_sp = sp.linalg.norm(coeff)
    # norm_new = qml.math.sqrt(qml.math.real(coeff[0])**2 + qml.math.imag(coeff[0])**2 + qml.math.real(coeff[1])**2 + qml.math.imag(coeff[1])**2)
    
    # print(norm_new == norm)
    # return norm
    return coeff / norm


def Without_norm(theta):
    gamma = 0
    coeff = np.array([ ((1+np.exp(-1.j * theta))/2) * (np.sqrt(1-gamma)) , (1-np.exp(-1.j * theta))/2 ]) / (1-gamma * (np.cos(theta)**2) )
    
    norm_new = qml.math.sqrt(qml.math.real(coeff[0])**2 + qml.math.imag(coeff[0])**2 + qml.math.real(coeff[1])**2 + qml.math.imag(coeff[1])**2)
    # norm = np.linalg.norm(coeff)
    norm = 1
    
    return coeff / norm


# With_norm(np.pi,0)

# == Generate Q_node ==

dev_with_norm = qml.device('default.qubit', wires = 1)
@qml.qnode(dev_with_norm)
def circuit_with_norm(theta):
    
    qml.QubitStateVector(With_norm(theta, 0), wires=range(1))

    
    return qml.probs()
    # return qml.density_matrix(wires=0)
    
    
dev_without = qml.device('default.qubit', wires = 1)
@qml.qnode(dev_without)
def circuit_without(theta):
    
    qml.QubitStateVector(Without_norm(theta), wires=range(1))

    
    return qml.probs()
    # return qml.density_matrix(wires=0)
    
# circuit_without(np.pi/2)

# == Compare with CFI plot ==
N = 1000
tau_CFI = np.linspace(-0.001, 3.0, N)

CFI_without = np.zeros(N)
CFI_with = np.zeros(N)

for i in range(len(tau_CFI)):
    CFI_with[i] = qml.qinfo.classical_fisher(circuit_with_norm)(tau_CFI[i])
    CFI_without[i] = qml.qinfo.classical_fisher(circuit_without)(tau_CFI[i])

plt.subplot(211)
plt.plot(tau_CFI, CFI_with)
plt.title('With normalized')
plt.xlabel('Time')
plt.ylabel('Probability_0_state')
# plt.legend()
plt.grid()


print('== print out CFI ==')
plt.subplot(212)
plt.plot(tau_CFI, CFI_without)
plt.title('Without normalized')
plt.xlabel('Time')
plt.ylabel('Probability_0_state')
plt.grid()

'With_normalized' I calculate the state vector coefficient with 'np.linalg.norm' for normalization. And 'Without_normalized' I normalized the coefficient just by dividing with constant 1.

Since gamma = 0 they should be made the same result. But I don't know why the result of the CFI which is normalized by 'np.linalg.norm' shows different.(It should be constant 1)

Thanks in advance.

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  • $\begingroup$ Just to be sure, the expected output is a constant 1, as is the case for the without case? Looks like there is a problem in tracing the gradient through np.linalg.norm. $\endgroup$
    – Korbinian
    Aug 31, 2023 at 14:56

1 Answer 1

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There seems to be a bug in classical_fisher in combination with np.linalg.norm. I opened an issue here, should be resolved soon (fingers crossed). For the meantime I suggest you use np.sqrt(np.sum(np.abs(coeffs)**2)), this works as expected.

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  • $\begingroup$ Thanks for your help. I fixed with np.sqrt(np.sum(np.abs(coeffs)**2)) that you suggested to me. $\endgroup$
    – Donguk kim
    Sep 1, 2023 at 4:47

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