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There is an offhand claim (somewhere) in https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eFIk7wpU5vA that a quantum annealer is in principle a completely equivalent machine to a gate-based quantum computer, in the sense that any problem solvable in one machine can be translated appropriately and then solved in the other machine.

For concreteness, let's take this basic circuit:

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What would be the equivalent circuit suitable for a quantum annealer?

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What is being referred to, I am guessing, is that adiabatic quantum computation and universal (gate model) quantum computing are polynomially equivalent. See this paper.

However, quantum annealing is not executing ideal adiabatic quantum computing. And in particular, current D-Wave quantum annealers are not universal. Right now, there is not a way (that I am aware of) to adapt a quantum circuit onto a D-Wave quantum annealer.

On a slight side note, there does exist a Qiskit-DWave plugin, but this is only describing how to execute both QAOA and quantum annealing on the same problem (both algorithms sample combinatorial optimization problems). QAOA and quantum annealing are similar, and QAOA a hybrid quantum algorithm (the quantum part is run on a gate model device), but in general there is not a gate model to quantum annealing converter.

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