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I've recently discovered an interest in quantum computing and technology. Essentially, this means that I am trying to learn as much as I possibly can, one question at a time.

I have heard that quantum theory is based on probability. How true is this statement? Please explain as to why and how this is true in layman's terms.

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    $\begingroup$ As an outsider, my understanding is that 100% would be a close answer. If so, perhaps an answer could state what parts of quantum computing are not based on probability. $\endgroup$ Commented Mar 4, 2023 at 14:12

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Probability plays the important role in quantum computing.

Unlike classical computing, a result is obtained by sampling from multiple shots of execution rather than just a single run.

The result of some basic algorithms such as Quantum Phase Estimation or Grover's Algorithm are usually non-deterministic, which means same algorithm with same input might not yield the same result in each execution.

Moreover, quantum error mitigation and error correction heavily based on probability theory (famous error corretion algorithm such as Shor's Code and Surface Code use the probability space).

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