The definition of maximally entangled state is \begin{equation} \vert \Phi \rangle = \frac{1}{\sqrt{d}} \sum_i \vert i \rangle \vert i \rangle, \tag{1} \end{equation} where $d$ is the dimension of the hilbert space. Then we have the following identity \begin{equation} (U\otimes I)\vert \Phi \rangle= (I\otimes U^T)\vert \Phi \rangle, \tag{2} \end{equation} where $U$ denotes the unitary matrix.

Equation (2) is from the lower right corner at Page. 7 in Cross-Platform Verification in Quantum Networks.

My question is how to proof equation (2).

  • $\begingroup$ This is also true for non-unitary operations, which don't need maximally entangled states but only states with maximal Schmidt number arxiv.org/abs/1906.07731 $\endgroup$ Jan 31, 2023 at 20:14

1 Answer 1


Start by writing $$ U=\sum_{ij}U_{ji}|j\rangle\langle i|. $$ Now evaluate $$ U\otimes I|\Phi\rangle=\frac{1}{\sqrt{d}}\sum_{ij}U_{ji}|j\rangle|i\rangle. $$ Next, realise that (again,if you don't see it,just write it out long-hand) $$ \sum_iU_{ji}|i\rangle=U^T|j\rangle, $$ so this just becomes $$ U\otimes I|\Phi\rangle=I\otimes U^T|\Phi\rangle. $$


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