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The qiskit-runtime primitives programs 'estimator' and 'sampler' for accessing the IBM Q hardware have the option of error mitigation by setting the 'resilience_level'. Here an overview of the meaning of the various options are given.

But does that mean that only this specified method is active or this and all from 'lower' levels? So eg. when specifying resilience_level=2 do I have the readout error mitigation as well or not? In each case, how do I implement the other case?

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Yes, setting resilience_level to a specific value enables the corresponding Error Mitigation (EM) technique only. In particular, as written in the documentation:

  • resilience_level=0: No mitigation
  • resilience_level=1: Twirled Readout Error eXtinction (arxiv:2012.09738)
  • resilience_level=2: Zero Noise Extrapolation (arXiv:1612.02058)
  • resilience_level=3: Probabilistic Error Cancellation (arXiv:1612.02058)

At the moment, I think it is not possible to combine more EM techniques (possible large time overhead issues?).

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  • $\begingroup$ A follow up question: Is there also a direct way to use dynamic decoupling as for the mentioned mitigation techniques? $\endgroup$ Commented Jan 13, 2023 at 12:27
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    $\begingroup$ Adding dynamic decoupling is not as easy as switching on an option but you should find something useful here $\endgroup$ Commented Jan 13, 2023 at 12:57
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See Qiskit page for the full details on resilience_level and optimization_level.

Setting optimization_level=1 or greater turns on dynamical decoupling.

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