# Decomposition of unitary operator into rotations around Bloch sphere

I apologize in advance for any mistakes as I am new to this field and come from a programming, rather than mathematical/physical background.

I am looking for a way to decompose a given operator $$U$$ into $$ZYZ$$ rotations. After searching on the internet, I wrote this Julia function to perform this operation (V[1, 1] represents $$V_{11}$$, etc.):

decompose(U::Matrix{ComplexF64}) = begin
α = atan(imag(det(U)),real(det(U)))/2
V = exp(-im*α)*U
θ₁ = magnitude(V[1, 1])≥magnitude(V[1, 2]) ? 2*acos(magnitude(V[1, 1])) : 2*asin(magnitude(V[1, 2]))
if cos(θ₁/2) == 0
θ₀ = atan(imag(V[2, 1]/sin(θ₁/2)), real(mag(V[2, 1]/sin(θ₁/2))))
θ₀ = -θ₂
elseif sin(θ₁/2) == 0
θ₀ = atan(imag(V[2, 2]/cos(θ₁/2)), real(V[2, 2]/cos(θ₁/2)))
θ₂ = θ₀
else
θ₀ = atan(imag(V[2, 2]/cos(θ₁/2)), real(V[2, 2]/cos(θ₁/2)))+atan(imag(V[2, 1]/sin(θ₁/2)), real(V[2, 1]/sin(θ₁/2)))
θ₂ = 2*atan(imag(V[2, 2]/cos(θ₁/2)), real(V[2, 2]/cos(θ₁/2)))-θ₀
end
return α, θ₀, θ₁, θ₂
end


I then plug these values back into $$e^{i*\alpha}*R_z(\theta_0)*R_y(\theta_1)*R_z(\theta_2)$$, to 'recompose' the gate and check if the gate decomposed correctly. Here is the compose function for reference:

R_x(θ) = [cos(θ/2) -im*sin(θ/2); -im*sin(θ/2) cos(θ/2)]
R_y(θ) = [cos(θ/2) -sin(θ/2); sin(θ/2) cos(θ/2)]
R_z(θ) = [exp(-im*θ/2) 0; 0 exp(im*θ/2)]
compose(α, θ₀, θ₁, θ₂) = exp(im*α)*R_z(θ₀)*R_y(θ₁)*R_z(θ₂)


This seems to work for the Hadamard, Pauli-X, and Pauli-Z gates when I test it, but when I test it for S, T, and Pauli-Y gates, it does not seem to work.

For S, I expect $$\begin{bmatrix}1 & 0 \\ 0 & i\end{bmatrix}$$, but I receive $$\begin{bmatrix}1 & 0 \\ 0 & 1\end{bmatrix}$$.

For T, I expect $$\begin{bmatrix}1 & 0 \\ 0 & \frac{\sqrt{2}}{2}+\frac{\sqrt{2}}{2}i\end{bmatrix}$$, but I receive $$\begin{bmatrix}1 & 0 \\ 0 & \sqrt{2}\end{bmatrix}$$.

For Pauli-Y, I expect $$\begin{bmatrix}0 & -i \\ i & 0\end{bmatrix}$$, but I receive $$\begin{bmatrix}0 & -1 \\ 1 & 0\end{bmatrix}$$.

It seems that the 'recomposed' gate has the values of the original gate written as $$\Re(z)+\Im(z)$$ instead of $$\Re(z)+\Im(z)i$$. Does this make any difference functionally or are the gates still equivalent? If there is a difference, is it possible to decompose the original gate and then compose it once again while retaining the complex values?

In the first if clause you define θ₀ twice, second time by using uninitialized θ₂.
BTW, instead of atan you could use the function angle of a complex number. And magnitude is just abs or norm from the LinearAlgebra package.
• Are you sure you wrote θ₂ = atan(imag(V[2, 1]/sin(θ₁/2)), real(mag(V[2, 1]/sin(θ₁/2)))); θ₀ = -θ₂? It fixes everything for me. Jul 31 at 17:38