I recently learned about the mock backends or the fake backends provided by Qiskit and I was wondering, do they behave the same way IBMQ systems backends like (ibmq_brooklyn)? also, can I depend on them? and what are the consequences?

Thank you.


1 Answer 1


According to Qiskit documentation:

Note, that these automatic models are only an approximation of the real errors that occur on actual devices, due to the fact that they must be build from a limited set of input parameters related to average error rates on gates. The study of quantum errors on real devices is an active area of research and we discuss the Qiskit Aer tools for configuring more detailed noise models in another notebook.

The mock backend are simulations that try to mimic real quantum devices on classical hardware. Proofs of quantumness could also, in principle, yield different results between simulation and emulation and this is also an open area of research related to your question. Recent results such as

A Cryptographic Test of Quantumness and Certifiable Randomness from a Single Quantum Device - Brakerski, Christiano, Mahadev, Vazirani, Vidick

And more recently: Verifiable Quantum Advantage without Structure - Yamakawa, Zhandry

show that it is possible (under certain assumptions) to “differentiate” between a classical simulation and a single quantum device, even if the simulation tries its best to “fool us”.

  • $\begingroup$ Thanks for the informations! $\endgroup$ Apr 22 at 21:20

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