I have just started to learn about quantum computing, and I know a little bit about qubits. What is a resource where I can learn a basic quantum algorithm and the concepts behind how it works?
Most textbooks and lecture courses start with solving the Deutsch problem using quantum computing.
Parts 1 to 4 of John Watrous's lecture notes will describe the concepts, starting from basics. By the end of lecture 4, you will have learned how a quantum computer can solve the Deutsch problem with fewer operations than a classical computer would need: