As far as I know, major quantum computing approaches include superconducting qubits, trapped ions, nuclear magnetic resonance qubits, and free space quantum optics. I guess two main technical difficulties in this field are creating entanglement and maintaining entanglement.

Are there any introductory review articles address the state-of-the-art status of various quantum computing approaches as well as the major challenges that each of them faces. Additionally, I am curious why the free-space quantum optics approach hasn't yet been "upgraded" to on-chip nanophotonic devices.

  • I am a newbie to quantum computing research/industry. So, if there are any other promising approaches or other important technical difficulties, please add them.

For a general overview about hardware and the difficulties they present, I recommend section three of Quantum Computing: An Overview Across the System Stack. Another good introduction would be Quantum Computing Hardware Implementation Methods: A Survey over Categories.

Let me also give you some papers specific to certain implementations and their recent advancements.

Superconducting qubits:

Trapped ion qubits:

NMR qubits:

Topoligcal qubits:


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