I'm reading on the Quantum Teleportation and I couldn't find anywhere what happens to the bell state qubits after the Quantum Teleportation.
Definitions for same starting point:
Quantum teleportation: We know that quantum teleportation is the transfer of quantum state over a distance.
Bell States: The Bell states are four specific maximally entangled quantum states of two qubits. They are in a superposition of 0 and 1 – a linear combination of the two states.
Evaluate your question:
From your question I can exclude that you are not searching an answer what "Bell state measurement" is.
with what happens to the bell state qubits after the Quantum Teleporation
you want to know what happens to two qubits during and after the quantum teleportation. That's a good question and luckely I can answer and break it down for you without missing any detail!
To keep this example clear, I have divided it into 3 phases
(1) The base:
You have 2 qubits in the standard basis. One is handed out to Alice (A) and the other to Bob (B). If Alice measures her qubit in the standard base she will get a perfectly random outcome. It could be 0 or 1. If Bob measures his qubit at the exact same time, the outcome would be random too BUT it will be the same as Alice has! So if Alice gets randomly a 1 then Bob has a 1 too. But only at the same time. This perfect correlation leads us to phase 2.
Summarized for simplicity: Alice and Bob share an EPR pair and each took one qubit before they became separated
(2) Quantum teleportation:
The mentioned correlation exist through the whole distance and as we know from the definition above, the changing quantum state over distance is called quantum teleportation. This correlation is very special and maybe the two particles "agreed" in advance, when the pair was created (before the qubits were separated), which outcome they would show in case of a measurement. Alice and Bob are able to measure the missing information they need.
Summarized for simplicity: Alice must deliver a qubit of information to Bob. Given Alice's measurements, Bob performs one of four operations on his half of the EPR pair and recovers the original quantum state, to get the information
(3) After quantum teleportation
The afterwards is actually not an afterwards but more like a [new] beginning. Because the information is "measured" during the quantum teleportation. The qubits can then be returned to their standard basis and thus re-used. A new exchange can take place.
Summarized for simplicity: So you can see the third phase here as getting lost in the sand. After Bob recovers the original quantum state, the qubits are ready for re-use.
To make it more visible or clear I made a drawing to understand the 3 phases ((1),(2),(3)) I definded for explanatory example.
I know this isn't an easy question and not easy to answer but I try to explain the theoretical part playful with the practical part (Bob and Alice). I hope this brought more understanding to the topic and would be happy to receive feedback!