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In the Deutsch algorithm, the oracle implementation for the function f is taken as a black box, but physically, how is the oracle implemented? Why can we assume such a black box exists for the computer?

The algorithm itself makes sense but how do we intuitively understand the existence of such an oracle for any function f. Is the correct analogy that in a computer, the implementation of a function is some sequence of gates. In a quantum computer, the abstraction of a function is that idea that it is also underneath just a sequence of gates.

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Is the correct analogy that in a computer, the implementation of a function is some sequence of gates.

Yes, that's almost always what an oracle will be.

The oracle could be some physical object that you are trying to analyze. For example, the computation could look like "pass these carefully polarized photons through the rock sample and check what happened to the polarizations". But physical objects are unlikely to meet the requirements of the oracle in the Deutsch algorithm.

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