Trying to understand the circuit/algorithm for VQLS and I found this diagram to show the high-level idea of doing the Hadamard test in this tutorial. But I am not quite sure why we need the two circuit blocks in the red box that I drew.

enter image description here

I appreciate the insight.

  • $\begingroup$ Can you share the link from where you found that image so people can look at it and answer your questions more easily? $\endgroup$ – epelaaez Jun 24 at 15:32
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    $\begingroup$ From the first glance, it looks like an uncomputation step(see that it is the exact inverse of block 2 and block 3) so as to restore the all 0 state of the ancilla register but as @epelaaez said, source of that image would be pretty helpful. $\endgroup$ – Harshit Gupta Jun 24 at 16:00
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    $\begingroup$ @epelaaez just added the link . Thanks $\endgroup$ – John Parker Jun 24 at 16:44
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    $\begingroup$ I think I answered this here: quantumcomputing.stackexchange.com/a/16934/1386. It might not be a full answer, this question is not really a duplicate, but it might be enough to fill the gap. Tell me if this does not answer your question. $\endgroup$ – Adrien Suau Jun 24 at 17:03
  • $\begingroup$ @Andrien Suau Thank you $\endgroup$ – John Parker Jun 24 at 17:26

This circuit is used to calculate the coefficients $\mu_{l, l', j}$ which appear in the numerator of $C_ L$

\begin{align*}\mu_{l, l', j} = \langle 0| V^\dagger A_{l'}^\dagger U Z_j U^\dagger A_l V |0\rangle\end{align*}

Hadamard test is used to calculate the expectation value $\langle\psi|{\bf Q}|\psi\rangle$.

Now we have,

$$\langle\psi|{\bf Q}|\psi\rangle\ = \langle 0| V^\dagger (A_{l'}^\dagger U Z_j U^\dagger A_l) V |0\rangle$$

That is, $|\psi\rangle\ = V |0\rangle$ and ${\bf Q} = A_{l'}^\dagger U Z_j U^\dagger A_l$.

  • $\begingroup$ Thank you so much Both of you Very clear! Salute! $\endgroup$ – John Parker Jun 24 at 17:18
  • $\begingroup$ But why do you need to control $A$ but not $U$ (here I refer to $U$ as the blue box of the circuit)? I thought that in a Hadamard test you need to control all the unitaries used to encode $U$ (here by $U$ I mean the general unitary in your answer) $\endgroup$ – Enrico Jun 24 at 21:08
  • $\begingroup$ @Enrico, You are correct in assuming that the $U$ should be controlled. However, it is also equivalent not to include the control. See Adrien Suau's answer in this question for an explanation: quantumcomputing.stackexchange.com/questions/16931/… $\endgroup$ – thespaceman Jun 24 at 23:25
  • $\begingroup$ @thespaceman Thanks for the link, it makes perfect sense! $\endgroup$ – Enrico Jun 25 at 13:18
  • $\begingroup$ @Egretta.Thula Follow-up question on calculating the expectation value. $$\langle\psi|{\bf Q}|\psi\rangle\ = \langle 0| V^\dagger (A_{l'}^\dagger U Z_j U^\dagger A_l) V |0\rangle$$ I assume this is done in Z (standard) basis or do we have to do transformation based on the matrix A , similar to VQE, to measure the expectation value? $\endgroup$ – John Parker Jun 29 at 19:48

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