# In the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm, why is the resulting amplitude for the constant and balanced cases $\pm 1$ and $0$, respectively?

I am currently learning from Nielsen and Chuang and I am currently learning about Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm. However, I am stumped with the mathematics of the algorithm at the following section: I understand intuitively that it works very similarly with Deutsch algorithm where we could measure a global state of the function with only 1 measurement, but I couldn't do it mathematically. Why is the amplitude simply so without including the $$x \cdot z$$ factor? I am also having a hard time on the summation over $$x$$ on the amplitudes. Why is the resulting amplitude for the constant case is $$\pm 1$$ and 0 for the balanced case?

Why is the amplitude simply so without including the $$x \dot z$$ factor?
When you calculate the amplitude of the $$|0\rangle^{\otimes n}$$ state, you have $$z = 0$$ (the integer representation of the state you're looking at), so $$x \dot z = 0$$ for any $$x$$.
For the constant case, if $$f(x) = 0$$, each of the terms $$(-1)^{f(x)}/2^n = 1/2^n$$, and there are $$2^n$$ of them, so they add up to 1. If $$f(x) = 1$$, each of the terms is $$-1/2^n$$, and they add up to -1, with the phase difference habitually discarded.
For the balanced cases, exactly half of the terms evaluate to $$1/2^n$$, and the other half to $$-1/2^n$$, so they cancel each other out, and the resulting sum is 0.
• Thank you for the reply. I would like to clarify some things. Is z only 0 because initially it was $|0⟩^{⊗n}$? So if let's just say I use $|1⟩^{⊗n}$ The factor in question should persist right? May 30, 2021 at 4:25
• z is 0 because we're looking at the amplitude of the basis state |z⟩ = |0...0⟩ in the resulting state $|\psi_3\rangle$. If we look at the amplitude of any other component, xz will remain, yes May 30, 2021 at 5:15