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I have code which runs on the IBMQ website perfectly, however copying and pasting the same code (and including my API token) the same code does not run when I try and run it on a real quantum computer from Jupyter notebook. My code is :

import math
import certifi
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import numpy as np
from math import pi

from qiskit import QuantumCircuit, ClassicalRegister, QuantumRegister, execute, Aer,BasicAer, IBMQ
from qiskit.compiler import transpile, assemble
from qiskit.tools.jupyter import *
from qiskit.visualization import *
from qiskit.tools.visualization import circuit_drawer
from qiskit.quantum_info import state_fidelity

backend = BasicAer.get_backend('unitary_simulator')

IBMQ.save_account('My_token', overwrite=True)

IBMQ.load_account() 
provider = IBMQ.get_provider(hub='ibm-q-research')
#circuit I want to run

def circtest(x1,x2,shotsin):
    maxShot=shotsin
    import random
    zz=[x1,x2]
 
    qr=QuantumRegister(1)

    my_layout={qr[0]:4}
    circuit2 = QuantumCircuit();
    circuit2.add_register(qr)
    cr=ClassicalRegister(1)
    circuit2.add_register(cr)
    circuit2.initialize(zz,0)
    circuit2.measure(0,0);
    device = provider.get_backend('ibmq_casablanca')
    Cfin=circuit2;
    result = execute(circuit2,backend=device,shots=maxShot).result()
    
    counts = result.get_counts(0)
    return counts

However running the simple test

#simple test
circtest(1,0,100)

returns the following error:

---------------------------------------------------------------------------
SSLCertVerificationError                  Traceback (most recent call last)
<ipython-input-3-8d451fe64647> in <module>
      1 #simple test
----> 2 totcirc1Qx(1,0,100)

<ipython-input-2-5ff78fcf31bb> in totcirc1Qx(x1, x2, shotsin)
     23     device = provider.get_backend('ibmq_casablanca')
     24     Cfin=circuit2;
---> 25     result = execute(circuit2,backend=device,shots=maxShot).result()
     26 
     27     counts = result.get_counts(0)

/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.9/lib/python3.9/site-packages/qiskit/providers/ibmq/job/ibmqjob.py in result(self, timeout, wait, partial, refresh)
    274         """
    275         # pylint: disable=arguments-differ
--> 276         if not self._wait_for_completion(timeout=timeout, wait=wait,
    277                                          required_status=(JobStatus.DONE,)):
    278             if self._status is JobStatus.CANCELLED:

/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.9/lib/python3.9/site-packages/qiskit/providers/ibmq/job/ibmqjob.py in _wait_for_completion(self, timeout, wait, required_status, status_queue)
    909 
    910         try:
--> 911             status_response = self._api_client.job_final_status(
    912                 self.job_id(), timeout=timeout, wait=wait, status_queue=status_queue)
    913         except UserTimeoutExceededError:

/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.9/lib/python3.9/site-packages/qiskit/providers/ibmq/api/clients/account.py in job_final_status(self, job_id, timeout, wait, status_queue)
    367             start_time = time.time()
    368             try:
--> 369                 status_response = self._job_final_status_websocket(
    370                     job_id=job_id, timeout=timeout, status_queue=status_queue)
    371             except WebsocketTimeoutError as ex:

/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.9/lib/python3.9/site-packages/qiskit/providers/ibmq/api/clients/account.py in _job_final_status_websocket(self, job_id, timeout, status_queue)
    419             else:
    420                 raise
--> 421         return loop.run_until_complete(
    422             self.client_ws.get_job_status(job_id, timeout=timeout, status_queue=status_queue))
    423 

/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.9/lib/python3.9/site-packages/nest_asyncio.py in run_until_complete(self, future)
     68                 raise RuntimeError(
     69                     'Event loop stopped before Future completed.')
---> 70             return f.result()
     71 
     72     def _run_once(self):

/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.9/lib/python3.9/asyncio/futures.py in result(self)
    199         self.__log_traceback = False
    200         if self._exception is not None:
--> 201             raise self._exception
    202         return self._result
    203 

/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.9/lib/python3.9/asyncio/tasks.py in __step(***failed resolving arguments***)
    256                 result = coro.send(None)
    257             else:
--> 258                 result = coro.throw(exc)
    259         except StopIteration as exc:
    260             if self._must_cancel:

/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.9/lib/python3.9/site-packages/qiskit/providers/ibmq/api/clients/websocket.py in get_job_status(self, job_id, timeout, retries, backoff_factor, status_queue)
    256         while current_retry_attempt <= retries:
    257             try:
--> 258                 websocket = await self._connect(url)
    259                 # Read messages from the server until the connection is closed or
    260                 # a timeout has been reached.

/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.9/lib/python3.9/site-packages/qiskit/providers/ibmq/api/clients/websocket.py in _connect(self, url)
    165         # Isolate specific exceptions, so they are not retried in `get_job_status`.
    166         except (SSLError, InvalidURI) as ex:
--> 167             raise ex
    168 
    169         # pylint: disable=broad-except

/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.9/lib/python3.9/site-packages/qiskit/providers/ibmq/api/clients/websocket.py in _connect(self, url)
    161         try:
    162             logger.debug('Starting new websocket connection: %s', url)
--> 163             websocket = await connect(url)
    164 
    165         # Isolate specific exceptions, so they are not retried in `get_job_status`.

/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.9/lib/python3.9/site-packages/websockets/legacy/client.py in __await_impl__(self)
    620     async def __await_impl__(self) -> WebSocketClientProtocol:
    621         for redirects in range(self.MAX_REDIRECTS_ALLOWED):
--> 622             transport, protocol = await self._create_connection()
    623             # https://github.com/python/typeshed/pull/2756
    624             transport = cast(asyncio.Transport, transport)

/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.9/lib/python3.9/asyncio/base_events.py in create_connection(self, protocol_factory, host, port, ssl, family, proto, flags, sock, local_addr, server_hostname, ssl_handshake_timeout, happy_eyeballs_delay, interleave)
   1079                     f'A Stream Socket was expected, got {sock!r}')
   1080 
-> 1081         transport, protocol = await self._create_connection_transport(
   1082             sock, protocol_factory, ssl, server_hostname,
   1083             ssl_handshake_timeout=ssl_handshake_timeout)

/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.9/lib/python3.9/asyncio/base_events.py in _create_connection_transport(self, sock, protocol_factory, ssl, server_hostname, server_side, ssl_handshake_timeout)
   1109 
   1110         try:
-> 1111             await waiter
   1112         except:
   1113             transport.close()

/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.9/lib/python3.9/asyncio/futures.py in __await__(self)
    282         if not self.done():
    283             self._asyncio_future_blocking = True
--> 284             yield self  # This tells Task to wait for completion.
    285         if not self.done():
    286             raise RuntimeError("await wasn't used with future")

/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.9/lib/python3.9/asyncio/tasks.py in __wakeup(self, future)
    326     def __wakeup(self, future):
    327         try:
--> 328             future.result()
    329         except BaseException as exc:
    330             # This may also be a cancellation.

/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.9/lib/python3.9/asyncio/futures.py in result(self)
    199         self.__log_traceback = False
    200         if self._exception is not None:
--> 201             raise self._exception
    202         return self._result
    203 

/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.9/lib/python3.9/asyncio/sslproto.py in data_received(self, data)
    526 
    527         try:
--> 528             ssldata, appdata = self._sslpipe.feed_ssldata(data)
    529         except (SystemExit, KeyboardInterrupt):
    530             raise

/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.9/lib/python3.9/asyncio/sslproto.py in feed_ssldata(self, data, only_handshake)
    186             if self._state == _DO_HANDSHAKE:
    187                 # Call do_handshake() until it doesn't raise anymore.
--> 188                 self._sslobj.do_handshake()
    189                 self._state = _WRAPPED
    190                 if self._handshake_cb:

/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.9/lib/python3.9/ssl.py in do_handshake(self)
    942     def do_handshake(self):
    943         """Start the SSL/TLS handshake."""
--> 944         self._sslobj.do_handshake()
    945 
    946     def unwrap(self):

SSLCertVerificationError: [SSL: CERTIFICATE_VERIFY_FAILED] certificate verify failed: unable to get local issuer certificate (_ssl.c:1122)

I assume I am just missing some way in which I can communicate with the actual devices but I am not sure what this is

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  • $\begingroup$ There was a similar issue here quantumcomputing.stackexchange.com/q/15876/9858 Maybe the answer to that question is what you are looking for. $\endgroup$ – KAJ226 May 18 at 1:21
  • $\begingroup$ I think this might be the same issue, but I am not sure how to use the solution provided there. Should I type /Applications/Python\ <version>/Install\ Certificates.command directly into terminal? $\endgroup$ – LOC May 18 at 5:10
  • 3
    $\begingroup$ similar issue as mentionned by @KAJ226. For MAC users, you can refer to stackoverflow.com/questions/42098126/… and timonweb.com/python/… $\endgroup$ – Patrick Mensac May 18 at 7:51
  • $\begingroup$ Thanks Patrick, this fixed my problem, my issue was I was not installing the certificate in the correct environment $\endgroup$ – LOC May 18 at 8:21
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You need to run

 pip install --upgrade certifi

The reason this did not work for me initially was that I was not running this command in the same environment where I run qiskit

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