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I struggle to find any information on Nielsen and Chuang or similar texts on the exact definition of the so-called IQ plane (I think this is a notion closely related to solid state quantum computers such as transmon).

Can you provide a simple explanation of what the IQ plane or recommend some references that clearly explain it and its relation to the estimation of quantum states when one performs quantum state tomography?

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IQ is an abbreviation for In-phase and Quadrature phase components of the signal. Whenever a qubit state ie. Z observable is read using a system such as resonator, the phase and amplitude of the resonator at a given frequency of signal changes depending on the qubits state. This change hence creates a change in the IQ plane. Using this measurement technique, quantum tomographies are performed.

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    $\begingroup$ can you provide with a reference? $\endgroup$
    – Marion
    Apr 30, 2021 at 10:47

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