Extension of Anin Post above (I havent been able to login back into that account, so set up a new one)
Limits of the Quantum Biology as Biological Semiconductor Approach
Quantum biology cannot simply solve the practical concerns of quantum computing as they stand - as biology is not simply a form of semiconductor or quantum computer.
I note that leading scholars such as P J Hore (quoted above) working on the radical pair mechanism in biology have been strongly connected to NMR research from the start. These scholars may well be aware of both the benefits and pitfalls of interdisciplinary work. One of the major risks within academic study, is that in drawing parallels across disciplines, we can ignore differences.
It unlikely that the complex adaptive systems of biology will simply fit to existing conceptualisations within computing or physics. It requires scholars examine the phenomena as something unknown and holding many possibilities - some of which may challenge any preconceptions they already have.
For example, focusing on the radical pairs mechanism alone in research into quantum efficiency (within biological processes) will be of limited use without understanding their wider context.
There is research evidencing the interaction of cryptochrome with redox and biological timing mechanisms in mice models (Harino et a, 2017). And more widely there is a growing literature on the interaction of redox and circadian rhythms (including through circadian gating) across many plant (Guadagno et al, 2018) and animal species.
Recent work has investigated circadian rhythms of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) generation and ROS-scavenging enzymes, and circadian rhythms of ROS-generating photosynthesis. It has been suggested that
'given that changes in the rate of photosynthesis lead to alterations
in the production of singlet oxygen, circadian regulation of
photosynthesis might give rise to rhythms of singlet oxygen
production'. (Simon et al, 2019).
If you want to understand more about circadian rhythms then I would suggest checking out Alfred Goldbeters work.
Biology doesn't Separate Everything into Individual Components
The operation of such timing mechanisms have implications for quantum efficiency [Garzia- Plazaola et al, 2017; Schubert et al, 2004) within biology. Sorek and Levy (2012) have also researched relationships with temperature compensation.
All known circadian clocks have an endogenous period that is
remarkably insensitive to temperature (Kidd et al, 2015)
From the above research, it would also seem that biology can treat light and temperature signalling as integrated rather than separated (Franklin et al, 2014).
And this isn't just about response to magnetic fields or light. The cry gene alters blue-light (<420 nm) phototransduction which affects biological clocks, spatial orientation and taxis relative to gravity, magnetic fields, solar, lunar, and celestial radiation in several species (Clayton, 2016)
Possible Role for Quantum Scarring
Associations between periodic orbits and quantum have been made in quantum scarring - where systems are prevented from reaching thermalisation. It may explain why equations that can be used to model dissipative structures which have been used to model biological oscillations (Alfred Goldbeter) can also be applied to other fields. For example the FKPP equation can be used to model dissipative structures arising through reaction-diffusion (the propagation of unstable non-linear wave fronts/population dynamics), but also quantum chromodynamics (Mueller and Munier, 2014) and the speed at which magnetic fronts propagate in a turbulent electrically conducting fluid. The diﬀusion approximation for transport admits an inﬁnite speed of propagation (Fedotov et al).
You might which to give consideration to how quantum biological systems could be associated with code. The photon is a proposed resource in quantum computation and communication.
Photons represent the natural flying qubit carriers for quantum
communication, and the presence of telecommunications optical fibres
makes the wavelengths of 1,310 nm and 1,550 nm particularly suitable
for distribution over long distances. However, qubits encoded into
alkaline atoms that absorb and emit at wavelengths around 800 nm have
been considered for the storage and processing of quantum information
(Tanzili et al, 2005)
Within biology there is a mechanism known as spontaneous chemiluminescence (and by a number of other names including ultraweak photon emissions and biophotons).
It is generally accepted that (these) photons are emitted (1) at near
UVA, visible, and near IR spectral ranges from 350 to 1300 nm and (2)
at the intensity of photon emission in the range of several units to
several hundreds (oxidative metabolic process) and several hundreds to
several thousands (oxidative stress process) photons s−1 cm−2. (Cifra
and Pospíšil, 2014)
This mechanism is widely found across biology (both in plants and animals) and takes place where electronically excited species are formed during oxidative stress processes (Cifra et al, 2014), which are associated with the production of ROS (Pospíšil et al, 2014). They can be generated and influenced by various stimuli including magnetic fields (Li, 2012)
The thinking is that
various molecular processes can emit photons and that these are
transported to the cell surface by energy carrying excitons. A similar
process carries the energy from photons across giant protein matrices
during photosynthesis (MIT technology review, 2012).
This mechanism has been linked to systematic changes in energy metabolism inherent to a circadian cycle in both animals and plants (Footitt et al, 2016 and Kobayashi et al, 2009). It has also been noted that a clear advantage of this mechanism is that it provides spatiotemporal information (Burgos et al, 2017)
It has been proposed that phosphenes (which can be generated in our visual cortex in response to various stimuli including light and magnetic fields) are the result of Ultra Weak Photon Emissions Császár et al, 2015. The exact mechanisms behind this are still under investigation, but we have various proteins including cryptochrome in our own retinas (Foley et al, 2011). Phosphenes generate a large range of geometrical shapes and colours. These could potentially act as code/memory.
The Geometries of Nature and the Chiral-induced Spin Selectivity Effect
The geometries of nature (including rotating spiral waves and chiral structures) are worth exploring further e.g see www.nature.com/articles/s41570-019-0087-1. It has been speculated that
'Many biological electron transfer processes occur through chiral systems, and the role of the chiral-induced spin selectivity effect has not yet been considered. The benefits of reducing backscattering and directing charge flow along chiral structures offer compelling possible reasons for why nature might use spin-selective electron transfer in biology' (Ron Naaman and David. H. Waldeck, 2015).
You might also want to check out literature on 'Redox-Triggered Chiroptical Switching'.
What might be the outcome of collapsing superpositioning
If the superpositioning of 1 and 0 can be generated, the question then needs to be asked what is the outcome of collapsing this.
A metaphor for this might be the collapsing of multi-stable visual illusions - such as the Necker cube. These present the possibility of multiple images and have been explored as a quantum effect.
We can collapse such illusions by deciding to give our attention to a particular possibility/image. Choice of which image we attend varies across individuals and such choices are preferences. Choosing one image does not validate that image above all others. It is merely a choice.
What we end up with is just one choice/interpretation from multiple possibilities. As such the application of both memory and prediction result in interpretations or constructions (with prediction drawing heavily on memory) rather than a correct answer.
The collapsing of super-positions might then be prevented through avoidance of such choice or superpositioning could established again through new possibilities - for example as generated through environmental change.