# XY Hamiltonian in a 1D Heisenberg Chain

I've been trying to implement the 1D Heisenberg chain (i.e. the XXZ model) on Qiskit but have been having trouble. To recap, the Heisenberg hamiltonian is as follows: $$H_{XXZ} = \sum^{N}_{i = 1} [J(S^{x}_{i}S^{x}_{i+1} + S^{y}_{i}S^{y}_{i+1} + \Delta S^{z}_{i}S^{z}_{i+1})]$$ and we can take the XY hamiltonian to be $$H_{XY} = \sum^{N}_{i = 1} [J(S^{x}_{i}S^{x}_{i+1} + S^{y}_{i}S^{y}_{i+1})]$$ as I understand. I know that the matrix representation of this hamiltonian's time evolution takes the form $$XY(\theta) = \begin{pmatrix} 1 & 0 & 0 & 0\\ 0 & \cos[{\theta}/2] & i\sin[{\theta}/2] & 0\\ 0 & i\sin[{\theta}/2] & \cos[{\theta}/2] & 0\\ 0 & 0 & 0 & 1 \end{pmatrix}$$ however, I'm not exactly sure how to implement it on Qiskit with the available Quantum logic gates. I do know that a special case to this problem is the iSwapGate, where it is equal to $$XY(\theta = \pi)$$, but is there a way to implement $$XY(\theta)$$ for arbitrary angles?

• Are you wanting to implement the evolution of $H_{XY}$ over just two qubits, or over many qubits? Dec 21 '20 at 7:26
• The two qubits case is the more important case for what I'm doing. However, the code I'm working on does generalize it to whatever number of sites/qubits I want. I had done so for the transverse Ising model before, so I think what I've done for this hamiltonian is correct as well. Dec 21 '20 at 12:56

Here is an implementation

from qiskit.circuit import QuantumCircuit, Parameter

theta = Parameter('θ')

qc = QuantumCircuit(2)
qc.cx(0, 1)
qc.crx(-1 * theta, 1, 0)
qc.cx(0, 1)

print(qc)
---
┌────────┐
q_0: ──■──┤ RX(-θ) ├──■──
┌─┴─┐└───┬────┘┌─┴─┐
q_1: ┤ X ├────■─────┤ X ├
└───┘          └───┘


and to evaluate that it works:

from qiskit.quantum_info import Operator

def XY(theta):
c = np.cos(theta / 2)
s = 1j * np.sin(theta / 2)

return np.array([[1, 0, 0, 0],
[0, c, s, 0],
[0, s, c, 0],
[0, 0, 0, 1]])

val = pi / 14
circ = qc.bind_parameters({theta: val})
np.allclose(Operator(circ).data,
XY(val))
---
True

• Yes, thank you for your help. I guess I need to look into the Qiskit library a bit more to get familiar with all of the available gates. Dec 20 '20 at 18:58