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See article here: https://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0208112

There are two steps in this procedure that I am curious about. First off, they suppose one can construct a circuit which efficiently performs the computation

$$\sqrt{p_i^{(m)} } |i\rangle|0\cdots 0\rangle \rightarrow \sqrt{p_i^{(m)} } |i\rangle|\theta_i\rangle.$$ How would one implement such a circuit? My guess is that one implements it in a similar way that one would on a classical computer, but quantum parallelism allows for $\theta_i$ to be calculated for all bit-combinations simultaneously. However, I have no idea how one starts when designing such circuits. Is there any place I can learn this so I can implement this procedure for any function $f(i) = \theta_i$?

My next question is regarding the next step of the procedure. That is $$\sqrt{p_i^{(m)} } |i\rangle|\theta_i\rangle|0\rangle \rightarrow \sqrt{p_i^{(m)} } |i\rangle|\theta_i\rangle(\cos\theta_i|0\rangle + \sin \theta_i|1\rangle). $$ This step is also completely unfamiliar to me. How does one perform a rotation on an ancilla qubit, where the rotation angle is given by the binary number represented by the state $|\theta_i\rangle$?

Any literature or answers getting me closer to learning this would be highly appreciated.

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    $\begingroup$ Please change the link to the abstract: arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0208112 instead of the PDF. $\endgroup$ Sep 8 '20 at 14:28
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    $\begingroup$ does this help quantumcomputing.stackexchange.com/q/12104/11793 $\endgroup$
    – Condo
    Sep 8 '20 at 15:45
  • $\begingroup$ It does help, Condo. Thank you. I am however still confused regarding how one implements $U_p$. Is there any computer science litterature that can help me understand this? $\endgroup$
    – QCQCQC
    Sep 9 '20 at 10:29
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    $\begingroup$ it is encouraged to ask a single, laser-focused question per post. If you have multiple questions you can create multiple posts $\endgroup$
    – glS
    Sep 9 '20 at 20:37

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