The documentation for the new version Qiskit 0.20.0 states that:

  • UGate is "Implemented using two X90 pulses on IBM Quantum systems:


  • U3Gate is "Implemented using two X90 pulses on IBM Quantum systems:


It looks like only the latter matches the known rotation sequence for U3: $z$-rotation ($\lambda$), $y$-rotation ($\theta$), $z$-rotation ($\varphi$)

Although their presentation matrices completely coincide: $$ \mathrm{U3}= \mathrm{U}= \begin{pmatrix} \cos(\theta/2) & -\mathrm{e}^{i\lambda}\sin(\theta/2) \\ \mathrm{e}^{i\phi}\sin(\theta/2) & \mathrm{e}^{i(\phi+\lambda)}\cos(\theta/2) \end{pmatrix}. $$

Is this an inaccuracy in the documentation or am I missing something and these gates are actually different?

Just in case, the aforementioned difference stated in the documentation refers to the hardware (not software) implementation of these gates on IBM Q systems.


1 Answer 1


If you look at the source code then you will see that the UGate is defined as an alias for the U3Gate. As to why do they need this alias, I do not know for sure. But if I were to hazard a guess, then it would be because in most quantum computing literature, $U$ is used to refer to an arbitrary unitary gate/operator. Since in qiskit U3Gate is the most generic single qubit unitary gate, it makes sense to identify it with $U$ from quantum computing literature.

  • 1
    $\begingroup$ That's quite right about implementation in source code of Qiskit: in qelib1.inc the u3 gate (like all the others, except the controlled ones) are defined through the U gate too. But this does not say anything about the hardware implementation: in IBM Q separate hardware implementations are used for u3, u2 and u1 gates (despite their definition through the generic U gate). $\endgroup$
    – Psanfi
    Commented Aug 20, 2020 at 15:26
  • $\begingroup$ @Psanfi I do not understand why you think U3 and U would be implemented separately. I would think one would be implemented in terms of the other at the hardware level, since they are essentially equivalent, granted I do not really know if they are implemented differently at the hardware level. The way I am reading it is that if they are equivalent then they will be implemented in the same way. $\endgroup$
    – e-eight
    Commented Aug 21, 2020 at 0:12
  • $\begingroup$ You said: "I do not understand why you think U3 and U would be implemented separately". I don't think so, I don't know too what the actual hardware implementation of the U gate is and would it be be implemented separately. The different hardware implementations of U and U3 gates are written in the documentation, I just want to figure out if this can be believed and if yes, what reason is? $\endgroup$
    – Psanfi
    Commented Aug 21, 2020 at 5:24
  • $\begingroup$ @Psanfi Could you point out where it is written that they are implemented differently? From your question, I only see that for both the implementation is by "using two X90 pulses on IBM Quantum systems". $\endgroup$
    – e-eight
    Commented Aug 21, 2020 at 6:16
  • $\begingroup$ Yes, but then there is a colon, below is a specific implementation for each gate (e.g. for the U gate a specific implementation: U(θ,ϕ,λ)=RZ(ϕ−π/2)RX(π/2)RZ(π−θ)RX(π/2)RZ(λ−π/2). In my question it was a direct quote from the documentation, enclosed in double quotes. $\endgroup$
    – Psanfi
    Commented Aug 21, 2020 at 6:54

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