# Qiskit: Initializing $n$ qubits with binary values ($0$s and $1$s)

Is there a way in Qiskit to initialize $$n$$ qubits with binary values (0s and 1s)? For example, how can I initialize two qubits in the state $$|11\rangle$$? Here is a code snippet:

from qiskit import QuantumCircuit
import numpy as np

n = 2
circuit = QuantumCircuit(n, n)

# Seeking some sort of initialization routine like this
circuit.initializeQubits(initialState=np.ones(n), ...)

# Define rest of the circuit
...


I am aware of the method in this tutorial, which is also referenced here and here. This method creates an arbitrary qubit state by defining an $$N$$ dimensional ($$N = 2^n$$) state vector of amplitudes. The problem with this method is it requires creating a state vector which is exponentially large. I'm trying to initialize the qubits by defining an $$n$$ dimensional binary vector, which for the above example would be [1, 1].

• Are you looking for a state in superposition? Or is the assumption that the state is a basis state? – C. Kang Aug 7 at 4:15

You can also create a Statevector, that can be directly initialized as follows:

from qiskit.quantum_info import Statevector
sv = Statevector.from_label('11')


You can use sv.evolve(qc) to apply an operator/circuit to the state, where qc is the operator/circuit. sv.data gives you the numpy array, containing the actual implementation of the state.

Check this for more details.

## qiskit-terra 0.16 or lower

As answered, probably the most canonical way to do this is with Statevector.from_label and initialize.

Here is the full example:

from qiskit import *
from qiskit.quantum_info import Statevector

n = 2
qc = QuantumCircuit(n)

qc.initialize(Statevector.from_label('1'*n).data, range(n))
qc.draw()

     ┌──────────────────────┐
q_0: ┤0                     ├
│  initialize(0,0,0,1) │
q_1: ┤1                     ├
└──────────────────────┘


You could confirm the result like this:

qc.measure_all()
execute(qc, backend=BasicAer.get_backend('qasm_simulator')).result().get_counts()


## qiskit-terra 0.17 or higher

This questions inspired a new way to initialize a qubits in the basis states of the Pauli eigenstates Z, X, Y (à la Statevector.from_label).

from qiskit import QuantumCircuit
from qiskit.extensions.quantum_initializer.initializer import Initialize

circuit = QuantumCircuit(6)
circuit.append(Initialize("10+-lr"), range(6))
circuit.draw()

     ┌──────────────────────────┐
q_0: ┤0                         ├
│                          │
q_1: ┤1                         ├
│                          │
q_2: ┤2                         ├
│  initialize(1,0,+,-,l,r) │
q_3: ┤3                         ├
│                          │
q_4: ┤4                         ├
│                          │
q_5: ┤5                         ├
└──────────────────────────┘


The decomposition of this gate is the following:

circuit.decompose().draw()

          ┌───┐ ┌───┐
q_0: ─|0>─┤ H ├─┤ S ├─
├───┤┌┴───┴┐
q_1: ─|0>─┤ H ├┤ SDG ├
├───┤└┬───┬┘
q_2: ─|0>─┤ X ├─┤ H ├─
├───┤ └───┘
q_3: ─|0>─┤ H ├───────
└───┘
q_4: ─|0>─────────────
┌───┐
q_5: ─|0>─┤ X ├───────
└───┘

• Inspired by this question, I submitted this issue to Qiskit github.com/Qiskit/qiskit-terra/issues/5134 Y'all welcomed to dump thoughts there about how a more intuitive initialize API can help. – luciano Sep 27 at 13:38
• Maybe a feature to come? github.com/Qiskit/qiskit-terra/pull/5229 – luciano Oct 15 at 18:19
• github.com/Qiskit/qiskit-terra/pull/5229 was merged and it will be included in qiskit-terra 0.17 – luciano Oct 21 at 18:38

Qiskit assumes that initially each qubitt is set to the $$|0\rangle$$ state. So if you have $$n$$ qubits, the initial state is $$|00..0\rangle$$. If you want to flip the state of some specific qubits, you have to apply an $$X$$ gate to each of those specific qubits. For example, the following code sets the $$|11\rangle$$ state:

qr = QuantumRegister(2)
cr = ClassicalRegister(2)
circuit = QuantumCircuit(qr, cr, name='mycircuit')
circuit.x(qr)
circuit.x(qr)


may be you can define a function like below

from qiskit import QuantumCircuit
def qubitinitialize(n,n_init):
#n = number of qubits
#n_init = initial state of each qubit
qc = QuantumCircuit(n)
for i in n_init:
if i == 1:
qc.x(i)
return(qc)


This function will return a circuit with initial state as you provide in n_init

n = 4  #number of qubits
n_init = [0,0,1,0] #a bit string of qubit initialization we need
qc_n = qubitinitialize(n,n_init)
qc_n.draw('mpl')


just remember that 0,1,2,3 in the bit string will convert to q3,q2,q1,q0

Aer simulators will support what you're looking for very soon: https://github.com/Qiskit/qiskit-aer/pull/834