Hi I am reading this error mitigation paper by the IBM team and I am slightly confused about the meaning of "coupling coefficients" when describing multi-qubit Hamiltonian.

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I have only seen coupling coefficients in terms describing interaction between atom and external electric field. What do these coefficients mean in terms of pauli gates and why are they time dependent?

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    $\begingroup$ Pauli matrices can be used to decompose arbitrary Hamiltonians. If the Hamiltonian is time-dependent, the coefficients must be time-dependent. Does that answer the question? $\endgroup$ – glS Jun 6 at 13:31

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