# How to create a qubit in arbitrary state in qiskit

A QuantumCircuit() command creates a qubit with zero state always.

I've seen some instructions about using Arbitrary Initialization but it is not accessible and returns 404 error.

• Hi! Can you share the code you are using? May 2 '20 at 15:53

Any one-qubit state can be described as (up to a global phase):

$$|\psi \rangle = \cos \left(\frac{\theta}{2} \right)|0\rangle + \sin \left(\frac{\theta}{2} \right) e^{i\varphi}|1\rangle$$

If we start from $$|0\rangle$$ state arbitrary quantum state can be generated (up to a global phase) with $$R_y(\theta)$$ and $$R_z(\varphi)$$ unitary operators (the order is important). Firstly we apply $$R_y(\theta)$$

$$R_y(\theta) |0\rangle = \cos \left( \frac{\theta}{2} \right)|0\rangle + \sin \left( \frac{\theta}{2}\right)|1\rangle$$

Then $$R_z(\varphi)$$

$$R_z(\varphi) \left(\cos\left(\frac{\theta}{2}\right)|0\rangle + \sin\left(\frac{\theta}{2} \right)|1\rangle \right) = \cos\left(\frac{\theta}{2}\right)e^{-i\frac{\varphi}{2}}|0\rangle + \sin\left(\frac{\theta}{2}\right)e^{i\frac{\varphi}{2}}|1\rangle$$

Disregarding the global phase we will obtain the following state:

$$|\psi \rangle = \cos\left(\frac{\theta}{2}\right)|0\rangle + \sin\left(\frac{\theta}{2}\right)e^{i\varphi}|1\rangle$$

That is an arbitrary state that we wanted to create. There are also other ways (gates) to this transformation.

The code will look like this:

circuit.ry(theta, qubit)
circuit.rz(phi, qubit)


It can also be done only with one $$u3(\theta, \varphi, 0)$$ gate:

$$u3(\theta, \varphi, 0) |0\rangle = \cos\left(\frac{\theta}{2}\right)|0\rangle + \sin\left(\frac{\theta}{2}\right)e^{i\varphi}|1\rangle$$

circuit.u3(theta, phi, 0, qubit)